For this reason his work is sometimes described as philosophical anthropology. Ricoeur is a post-structuralist hermeneutic philosopher who employs a model of textuality as the framework for his analysis of meaning, which extends across writing, speech, art and action. Ricoeur considers human understanding to be cogent only to the extent that it implicitly deploys structures and strategies characteristic of textuality. It is Ricoeur's view that our self-understandings, and indeed history itself , are "fictive", that is, subject to the productive effects of the imagination through interpretation.
For Ricoeur, the human subjectivity is primarily linguistically designated and mediated by symbols. He states that the "problematic of existence" is given in language and must be worked out in language and discourse. Ricoeur refers to his hermeneutic method as a "hermeneutics of suspicion" because discourse both reveals and conceals something about the nature of being.
Unlike post-structuralists such as Foucault and Derrida, for whom subjectivity is nothing more than an effect of language, Ricoeur anchors subjectivity in the human body and the material world, of which language is a kind of second order articulation. In the face of the fragmentation and alienation of post-modernity, Ricoeur offers his narrative theory as the path to a unified and meaningful life; indeed, to the good life. Ricoeur has developed a theoretical style that can best be described as "tensive".
He weaves together heterogeneous concepts and discourses to form a composite discourse in which new meanings are created without diminishing the specificity and difference of the constitutive terms. Ricoeur's work on metaphor and on the human experience of time are perhaps the best examples of this method, although his entire philosophy is explicitly such a discourse. For example, in What Makes Us Think? Ricoeur discusses the nature of mental life in terms of the tension between our neurobiological conceptions of mind and our phenomenological concepts.
Similarly, in the essay "Explanation and Understanding" he discusses human behavior in terms of the tension between concepts of material causation, and the language of actions and motives. The tensive style is in keeping with what Ricoeur regards as basic, ontological tensions inherent in the peculiar being that is human existence, namely, the ambiguity of belonging to both the natural world and the world of action through freedom of the will. Accordingly, Ricoeur insists that philosophy find a way to contain and express those tensions, and so his work ranges across diverse schools of philosophical thought, bringing together insights and analysis from both the Anglo-American and European traditions, as well as from literary studies, political science and history.
The tensions are played out in our ability to take different perspectives on ourselves and so to formulate diverse approaches and methods in understanding ourselves. The different theoretical frameworks employed in philosophy and the sciences are not simply the result of ignorance or power. They are the result of tensions that run through the very structure of human being; tensions which Ricoeur describes as "fault lines. Ricoeur calls these "fault lines" because they are lines that can intersect in different ways in all the different aspects of human lives, giving lives different meanings.
However, as points of intersection of discourses, these meanings can come apart. Ricoeur argues that the stability we enjoy with respect to the meanings of our lives is a tentative stability, subject to the influences of the material world, including the powers and afflictions of one's body, the actions of other people and institutions, and one's own emotional and cognitive states. Given the fundamental nature of these tensions, Ricoeur argues that it is ultimately poetics exemplified in narrative , rather than philosophy that provides the structures and synthetic strategies by which understanding and a coherent sense of self and life is possible.
Ricoeur acknowledges his indebtedness to several key figures in the tradition, most notably, Aristotle, Kant, Hegel and Heidegger. Aristotelian teleology pervades Ricoeur's textual hermeneutics, and is most obvious in his adoption of a narrative approach.
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The concepts of "muthos" and "mimesis" in Aristotle's Poetics form the basis for Ricoeur's account of narrative "emplotment," which he enjoins with the innovative powers of the Kantian productive imagination within a general theory of poetics. The influence of Hegel is manifest in Ricoeur's employment of a method he describes as a "refined dialectic.
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Like Hegel, the dialectic involves identifying key oppositional terms in a debate, and then proceeding to articulate their synthesis into a new, more developed concept. However, this synthesis does not have the uniformity of a Hegelian synthesis. Ricoeur's method entails showing how the meanings of two seemingly opposed terms are implicitly informed by, and borrow from, each other.
Within the dialectic, the terms maintain their differences at the same time that a common "ground" is formed. However, the common ground is simply the ground of their mutual presupposition. Ricoeur's dialectic, then, is a unity of continuity and discontinuity. For example, in "Explanation and Understanding" Ricoeur argues that scientific explanation implicitly deploys a background hermeneutic understanding that exceeds the resources of explanation.
At the same time, hermeneutic understanding necessarily relies upon the systematic process of explanation. Neither the natural sciences nor the human sciences are fully autonomous disciplines. A key dialectic that runs through Ricoeur's entire corpus is the dialectic of same and other. This is a foundational dialectic for him, and so, as might be expected, it structures his discussions and dissections of every field of philosophy he enters: selfhood, justice, love, morality, personal identity, knowledge, time, language, metaphor, action, aesthetics, metaphysics, and so on.
Unlike the Hegelian dialectic, for Ricoeur, there is no absolute culminating point. There is, nevertheless, a kind of absolute, an objective existence that is revealed indirectly through the dialectic. This is most evident in the third volume of Time and Narrative , where he argues that phenomenological time presupposes an objective order of time cosmological time , and in The Rule of Metaphor , where he argues that language belongs to, and is expressive of, extra-linguistic reality.
Despite this apparent concession to realism, Ricoeur insists that the objective cannot be known as such, but merely grasped indirectly and analytically. Here, the Kantian influence comes to the fore. For Ricoeur, objective reality is the contemporary equivalent of Kantian noumena: although it can never itself become an object of knowledge, it is a kind of necessary thought, a limiting concept, implied in objects of knowledge.
This view informs Ricoeur's "tensive" style. Although we can know, philosophically that there is an objective reality, and, in that sense, a metaphysical constraint on human existence, we can never understand human existence simply in terms of this objectivity. What we must appeal to in order to understand our existence are our substantive philosophical and ethical concepts and norms.
This sets up an inevitable tension between the contingency of those norms and the brute fact of objective reality, evidenced in our experience of the involuntary, for example, as aging and dying. Again, Kant looms large. We necessarily regard ourselves from two perspectives: as the author of our actions in the practical world, and as part of, or passive to, cause and effect in the natural world. Such is the inherently ambiguous and tensive nature of human, mortal subjects.
It is this condition, then, with which philosophy must grapple. And it is to this condition that Ricoeur offers narrative as the appropriate framework. There are two closely related questions that animate all of Ricoeur's work, and which he considers to be fundamental to philosophy: "Who am I? Consequently, those philosophies lack the means to address the second question. Postmodernism self-consciously rejects traditional processes of identity formation, depicting them as familial and political power relations premised upon dubious metaphysical assumptions about gender, race and mind.
At the same time, contemporary philosophy of mind reduces questions of "who? In relation to the question "Who am I? To the moral question, the debt is to Aristotle and Kant. In addressing the question "who am I?
In this endeavor, Ricoeur's philosophy is driven by the desire to provide an account that will do justice to the tensions and ambiguities which make us human, and which underpin our fallibility. Ricoeur's interest here can be noted as early as The Voluntary and The Involuntary , drafted during his years as a prisoner of war.
There he explores the involuntary constraints to which we are necessarily subject in virtue of our being bodily mortal creatures, and the voluntariness necessary to the idea of ourselves as the agents of our actions. We have, as he later describes it, a "double allegiance", an allegiance to the material world of cause and effect, and to the phenomenal world of the freedom of the will by which we tear ourselves away from the laws of nature through action. This conception of the double nature of the self lies at the core of Ricoeur's philosophy.
Ricoeur rejects the idea that a self is a metaphysical entity; there is no entity, "the self," there is only selfhood. Selfhood is an intersubjectively constituted capacity for agency and self-ascription that can be had by individual human beings. Selfhood proper is neither simply an abstract nor an animal self-awareness, but both.
It essentially involves an active grasp of oneself as a "who"--that is, as a person who is the subject of a concrete situation, a situation characterized by material and phenomenal qualities. This entails understanding oneself as a named person with a time and place of birth, linked to other similarly named persons and to certain ethnic and cultural traditions, living in a dated and named place.
In Oneself As Another Ricoeur describes how the complexity of the question of "who? The difficulty will be. Drawing on Heidegger's notion of Dasein, Ricoeur goes on to write that " To say self is not to say myself. The self. What he means by this is that each person has to take one's selfhood as one's own; each must take oneself as who one is; one must "attest" to oneself. Subjectivity, or selfhood, is for Ricoeur, a dialectic of activity and passivity because we are beings with a "double nature," structured along the fault lines of the voluntary and the involuntary, beings given to ourselves as something to be known.
Ricoeur shares Marcel's view that the answer to the question "Who am I? This is because, in asking "Who am I? This peculiar circularity gives a "questing" and dialectical character to selfhood, which now requires a hermeneutic approach. This circularity has its origins in the nature of embodied subjectivity. Ricoeur's account is built upon Marcel's conception of embodied subjectivity as a "fundamental predicament" Marcel, The predicament lies in the anti-dualist realization that "I" and my body are not metaphysically distinct entities.
My body cannot be abstracted from its being mine. Whatever states I may attribute to my body as its states, I do so only insofar as they are attributes of mine. My body is both something that I am and something that I have : it is "my body" that imagines, perceives and experiences. The unity of "my body" is a unity sui generis.
Yet my body is also that over which I exercise a certain instrumentality through my agency. However, the agency that effects that instrumentality is nothing other than "my body. In this experience the distinction between subject and object becomes blurred: it isn't clear which hand is being touched and which is touching; each hand oscillates between the role of agent and object, without ever being both simultaneously.
One cannot feel oneself feeling. This example is supposed to demonstrate two points: first, that the ambiguity of my body prevents the complete objectification of myself, and second, that ambiguity extends to all perception. Perception is not simply passive, but rather, involves an active reception a concept that Ricoeur takes up and develops in his account of the ontology of the self and one's own body in Oneself As Another , see — In other words, my body has an active role in structuring my perceptions, and so, the meaning of my perceptions needs to be interpreted in the context of my bodily situation.
The non-coincidence of myself and my body constitutes a "fault line" within the structure of subjectivity. The result is that knowledge of myself and the world is not constituted by more or less accurate facts, but rather, is a composite discourse--a discourse which charts the intersection of the objective, intersubjective and subjective aspects of lived experience.
On this view, all knowledge, including my knowledge of my own existence, is mediate and so calls for interpretation. This also means that self-understanding can never be grasped by the kind of introspective immediacy celebrated by Descartes. Instead, as human beings we are never quite "at one" with ourselves; we are fallible creatures. Thus, who I am is not an objective fact to be discovered, but rather something that I must achieve or create, and to which I must attest. On Ricoeur's view, the question "Who am I?
The ability to grasp oneself as a concrete subject of such a world requires a complex mode of understanding capable of integrating discourses of quite heterogenous kinds, including, importantly, different orders of time. It is to the temporal dimension of selfhood that Ricoeur has most directly addressed his hermeneutic philosophy and narrative model of understanding. Central to Ricoeur's defense of narrative is its capacity to represent the human experience of time.
Such a capacity is an essential requisite for a reflective philosophy. Ricoeur sets out his account of "human time" in Time and Narrative , Volume 3. He points out that we experience time in two different ways. We experience time as linear succession, we experience the passing hours and days and the progression of our lives from birth to death. This is cosmological time--time expressed in the metaphor of the "river" of time.
The other is phenomenological time; time experienced in terms of the past, present and future. As self-aware embodied beings, we not only experience time as linear succession, but we are also oriented to the succession of time in terms of what has been, what is, and what will be. On its own terms it argues that ethics always involves a certain degree of trust or faith and that we cannot always wait for adequate proof when making moral decisions. Moral questions immediately present themselves as questions whose solution cannot wait for sensible proof.
A moral question is a question not of what sensibly exists, but of what is good, or would be good if it did exist. A social organism of any sort whatever, large or small, is what it is because each member proceeds to his own duty with a trust that the other members will simultaneously do theirs. Wherever a desired result is achieved by the co-operation of many independent persons, its existence as a fact is a pure consequence of the precursive faith in one another of those immediately concerned. A government, an army, a commercial system, a ship, a college, an athletic team, all exist on this condition, without which not only is nothing achieved, but nothing is even attempted.
The Will to Believe James Of the classical pragmatists, John Dewey wrote most extensively about morality and democracy. Edel In his classic article Three Independent Factors in Morals Dewey , he tried to integrate three basic philosophical perspectives on morality: the right, the virtuous and the good. He held that while all three provide meaningful ways to think about moral questions, the possibility of conflict among the three elements cannot always be easily solved.
Anderson, SEP. Dewey also criticized the dichotomy between means and ends which he saw as responsible for the degradation of our everyday working lives and education, both conceived as merely a means to an end. He stressed the need for meaningful labor and a conception of education that viewed it not as a preparation for life but as life itself. Dewey  ch. Dewey was opposed to other ethical philosophies of his time, notably the emotivism of Alfred Ayer.
Dewey envisioned the possibility of ethics as an experimental discipline, and thought values could best be characterized not as feelings or imperatives, but as hypotheses about what actions will lead to satisfactory results or what he termed consummatory experience. A further implication of this view is that ethics is a fallible undertaking, since human beings are frequently unable to know what would satisfy them. During the late s and first decade of , pragmatism was embraced by many in the field of bioethics led by the philosophers John Lachs and his student Glenn McGee , whose book "'The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetic Engineering'" see designer baby garnered praise from within classical American philosophy and criticism from bioethics for its development of a theory of pragmatic bioethics and its rejection of the principalism theory then in vogue in medical ethics.
An anthology published by The MIT Press, "'Pragmatic Bioethics'" included the responses of philosophers to that debate, including Micah Hester, Griffin Trotter and others many of whom developed their own theories based on the work of Dewey, Peirce, Royce and others. Lachs himself developed several applications of pragmatism to bioethics independent of but extending from the work of Dewey and James.
Lekan argues that morality is a fallible but rational practice and that it has traditionally been misconceived as based on theory or principles. Instead, he argues, theory and rules arise as tools to make practice more intelligent. John Dewey's Art as Experience , based on the William James lectures he delivered at Harvard , was an attempt to show the integrity of art, culture and everyday experience IEP. Art, for Dewey, is or should be a part of everyone's creative lives and not just the privilege of a select group of artists. He also emphasizes that the audience is more than a passive recipient.
Dewey's treatment of art was a move away from the transcendental approach to aesthetics in the wake of Immanuel Kant who emphasized the unique character of art and the disinterested nature of aesthetic appreciation. A notable contemporary pragmatist aesthetician is Joseph Margolis. He defines a work of art as "a physically embodied, culturally emergent entity", a human "utterance" that isn't an ontological quirk but in line with other human activity and culture in general.
He emphasizes that works of art are complex and difficult to fathom, and that no determinate interpretation can be given. Both Dewey and James investigated the role that religion can still play in contemporary society, the former in A Common Faith and the latter in The Varieties of Religious Experience. From a general point of view, for William James, something is true only insofar as it works. Thus, the statement, for example, that prayer is heard may work on a psychological level but a may not help to bring about the things you pray for b may be better explained by referring to its soothing effect than by claiming prayers are heard.
As such, pragmatism is not antithetical to religion but it is not an apologetic for faith either. James' metaphysical position however, leaves open the possibility that the ontological claims of religions may be true. As he observed in the end of the Varieties, his position does not amount to a denial of the existence of transcendent realities. Quite the contrary, he argued for the legitimate epistemic right to believe in such realities, since such beliefs do make a difference in an individual's life and refer to claims that cannot be verified or falsified either on intellectual or common sensorial grounds.
Joseph Margolis , in Historied Thought, Constructed World California, , makes a distinction between "existence" and "reality". He suggests using the term "exists" only for those things which adequately exhibit Peirce's Secondness : things which offer brute physical resistance to our movements.
In this way, such things which affect us, like numbers, may be said to be "real", although they do not "exist". Margolis suggests that God, in such a linguistic usage, might very well be "real", causing believers to act in such and such a way, but might not "exist". Neopragmatism is a broad contemporary category used for various thinkers that incorporate important insights of, and yet significantly diverge from, the classical pragmatists.
This divergence may occur either in their philosophical methodology many of them are loyal to the analytic tradition or in conceptual formation: for example, conceptual pragmatist C. Lewis was very critical of Dewey; neopragmatist Richard Rorty disliked Peirce. Important analytic pragmatists include early Richard Rorty who was the first to develop neopragmatist philosophy in his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature ,  Hilary Putnam , W. Quine , and Donald Davidson. Brazilian social thinker Roberto Unger advocates for a radical pragmatism , one that "de-naturalizes" society and culture, and thus insists that we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of the arrangements and beliefs that comprise them".
Neopragmatist thinkers who are more loyal to classical pragmatism include Sidney Hook and Susan Haack known for the theory of foundherentism. Many pragmatist ideas especially those of Peirce find a natural expression in the decision-theoretic reconstruction of epistemology pursued in the work of Isaac Levi.
Nicholas Rescher advocates his version of methodological pragmatism , based on construing pragmatic efficacy not as a replacement for truths but as a means to its evidentiation. Not all pragmatists are easily characterized. With the advent of postanalytic philosophy and the diversification of Anglo-American philosophy, many philosophers were influenced by pragmatist thought without necessarily publicly committing themselves to that philosophical school.
Daniel Dennett , a student of Quine's, falls into this category, as does Stephen Toulmin , who arrived at his philosophical position via Wittgenstein , whom he calls "a pragmatist of a sophisticated kind" foreword for Dewey in the edition, p. Another example is Mark Johnson whose embodied philosophy Lakoff and Johnson shares its psychologism, direct realism and anti-cartesianism with pragmatism.
Conceptual pragmatism is a theory of knowledge originating with the work of the philosopher and logician Clarence Irving Lewis.
The epistemology of conceptual pragmatism was first formulated in the book Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge. It is often seen as opposed to structural problems connected to the French critical theory of Pierre Bourdieu. French pragmatism has more recently made inroads into American sociology as well.
Philosophers John R. Shook and Tibor Solymosi said that "each new generation rediscovers and reinvents its own versions of pragmatism by applying the best available practical and scientific methods to philosophical problems of contemporary concern". In the twentieth century, the movements of logical positivism and ordinary language philosophy have similarities with pragmatism. Like pragmatism, logical positivism provides a verification criterion of meaning that is supposed to rid us of nonsense metaphysics; however, logical positivism doesn't stress action as pragmatism does. The pragmatists rarely used their maxim of meaning to rule out all metaphysics as nonsense.
Usually, pragmatism was put forth to correct metaphysical doctrines or to construct empirically verifiable ones rather than to provide a wholesale rejection. Ordinary language philosophy is closer to pragmatism than other philosophy of language because of its nominalist character although Peirce's pragmatism is not nominalist  and because it takes the broader functioning of language in an environment as its focus instead of investigating abstract relations between language and world.
Pragmatism has ties to process philosophy. Much of their work developed in dialogue with process philosophers such as Henri Bergson and Alfred North Whitehead , who aren't usually considered pragmatists because they differ so much on other points. Douglas Browning et al. Behaviorism and functionalism in psychology and sociology also have ties to pragmatism, which is not surprising considering that James and Dewey were both scholars of psychology and that Mead became a sociologist.
Utilitarianism has some significant parallels to Pragmatism and John Stuart Mill espoused similar values. Pragmatism emphasizes the connection between thought and action. Applied fields like public administration ,  political science ,  leadership studies,  international relations ,  conflict resolution,  and research methodology  have incorporated the tenets of pragmatism in their field. Often this connection is made using Dewey and Addams's expansive notion of democracy.
In the early twentieth century, Symbolic interactionism , a major perspective within sociological social psychology, was derived from pragmatism, especially the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Cooley , as well as that of Peirce and William James. Increasing attention is being given to pragmatist epistemology in other branches of the social sciences, which have struggled with divisive debates over the status of social scientific knowledge.
Enthusiasts suggest that pragmatism offers an approach which is both pluralist and practical. Scholars claim classical pragmatism had a profound influence on the origin of the field of public administration. Public administrators are also responsible for the day-to-day work with citizens. Dewey's participatory democracy can be applied in this environment. Dewey and James' notion of theory as a tool, helps administrators craft theories to resolve policy and administrative problems. Further, the birth of American public administration coincides closely with the period of greatest influence of the classical pragmatists.crusvil.tk
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Which pragmatism classical pragmatism or neo-pragmatism makes the most sense in public administration has been the source of debate. The debate began when Patricia M. Shields introduced Dewey's notion of the Community of Inquiry. Miller  and Shields   also responded. In addition, applied scholarship of public administration that assesses charter schools ,  contracting out or outsourcing ,  financial management,  performance measurement ,  urban quality of life initiatives,  and urban planning  in part draws on the ideas of classical pragmatism in the development of the conceptual framework and focus of analysis.
The health sector's administrators' use of pragmatism has been criticized as incomplete in its pragmatism, however,  according to the classical pragmatists, knowledge is always shaped by human interests. The administrator's focus on "outcomes" simply advances their own interest, and this focus on outcomes often undermines their citizen's interests, which often are more concerned with process. On the other hand, David Brendel argues that pragmatism's ability to bridge dualisms, focus on practical problems, include multiple perspectives, incorporate participation from interested parties patient, family, health team , and provisional nature makes it well suited to address problems in this area.
Since the mid s, feminist philosophers have re-discovered classical pragmatism as a source of feminist theories. Works by Seigfried,  Duran,  Keith,  and Whipps  explore the historic and philosophic links between feminism and pragmatism. The connection between pragmatism and feminism took so long to be rediscovered because pragmatism itself was eclipsed by logical positivism during the middle decades of the twentieth century. As a result, it was lost from femininist discourse. The very features of pragmatism that led to its decline are the characteristics that feminists now consider its greatest strength.
These are "persistent and early criticisms of positivist interpretations of scientific methodology; disclosure of value dimension of factual claims"; viewing aesthetics as informing everyday experience; subordinating logical analysis to political, cultural, and social issues; linking the dominant discourses with domination; "realigning theory with praxis; and resisting the turn to epistemology and instead emphasizing concrete experience".
In addition, the ideas of Dewey, Mead, and James are consistent with many feminist tenets. Jane Addams, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead developed their philosophies as all three became friends, influenced each other, and were engaged in the Hull-House experience and women's rights causes. In the essay "The Thirteen Pragmatisms", Arthur Oncken Lovejoy argues that there's significant ambiguity in the notion of the effects of the truth of a proposition and those of belief in a proposition in order to highlight that many pragmatists had failed to recognize that distinction.
British philosopher Bertrand Russell devoted a chapter each to James and Dewey in his book A History of Western Philosophy ; Russell pointed out areas in which he agreed with them but also ridiculed James's views on truth and Dewey's views on inquiry.
Neopragmatism as represented by Richard Rorty has been criticized as relativistic both by other neopragmatists such as Susan Haack Haack and by many analytic philosophers Dennett Rorty's early analytic work, however, differs notably from his later work which some, including Rorty, consider to be closer to literary criticism than to philosophy, and which attracts the brunt of criticism from his detractors. I refer to Mr. Charles S. Peirce, with whose very existence as a philosopher I dare say many of you are unacquainted.
He is one of the most original of contemporary thinkers; and the principle of practicalism or pragmatism, as he called it, when I first heard him enunciate it at Cambridge in the early [s] is the clue or compass by following which I find myself more and more confirmed in believing we may keep our feet upon the proper trail.
Indeed, it may be said that if two apparently different definitions of the reality before us should have identical consequences, those two definitions would really be identical definitions, made delusively to appear different merely by the different verbiage in which they are expressed. Peirce, especially the second paper, "How to make our Thoughts clear," [ sic ] in the Popular Science Monthly for January, I have always fathered my pragmati ci sm as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [ pragmatism ] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
Important introductory primary texts Note that this is an introductory list: some important works are left out and some less monumental works that are excellent introductions are included. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical movement. This article is about the philosophical movement. For other uses, see Pragmatism disambiguation. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Pragmatic theory of truth. Main article: Pragmatic ethics. Main article: Neopragmatism. Classical pragmatists — [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Charles Sanders Peirce — was the founder of American pragmatism later called by Peirce pragmaticism.
He wrote on a wide range of topics, from mathematical logic and semiotics to psychology. William James — influential psychologist and theorist of religion , as well as philosopher. First to be widely associated with the term "pragmatism" due to Peirce's lifelong unpopularity. John Dewey — prominent philosopher of education , referred to his brand of pragmatism as instrumentalism. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Supreme Court Associate Justice. Schiller — one of the most important pragmatists of his time, Schiller is largely forgotten today.
Important protopragmatists or related thinkers Name Lifetime Notes George Herbert Mead — philosopher and sociological social psychologist. Josiah Royce — colleague of James at Harvard who employed pragmatism in an idealist metaphysical framework, he was particularly interested in the philosophy of religion and community; his work is often associated with neo-Hegelianism. George Santayana — although he eschewed the label "pragmatism" and called it a "heresy", several critics argue that he applied pragmatist methodologies to naturalism , especially in his early masterwork, The Life of Reason.
Du Bois — student of James at Harvard who applied pragmatist principles to his sociological work, especially in The Philadelphia Negro and Atlanta University Studies. Additional figures Name Lifetime Notes Giovanni Papini — Italian essayist, mostly known because James occasionally mentioned him. Giovanni Vailati — Italian analytic and pragmatist philosopher. Hu Shih — Chinese intellectual and reformer, student and translator of Dewey's and advocate of pragmatism in China.
Reinhold Niebuhr — American philosopher and theologian, inserted pragmatism into his theory of Christian realism. Lewis — American philosopher, founder of conceptual pragmatism. His work interprets contemporary philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophical logic through the lens of classical American pragmatism. Arthur Fine — Philosopher of Science who proposed the Natural Ontological Attitude to the debate of scientific realism. Stanley Fish — Literary and Legal Studies pragmatist. Criticizes Rorty's and Posner's legal theories as "almost pragmatism"  and authored the afterword in the collection The Revival of Pragmatism.
Clarence Irving Lewis — a leading authority on symbolic logic and on the philosophic concepts of knowledge and value. Joseph Margolis — still proudly defends the original Pragmatists and sees his recent work on Cultural Realism as extending and deepening their insights, especially the contribution of Peirce and Dewey, in the context of a rapprochement with Continental philosophy. Hilary Putnam in many ways the opposite of Rorty and thinks classical pragmatism was too permissive a theory.
Richard Rorty — famous author of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. John J. Stuhr Willard van Orman Quine — pragmatist philosopher, concerned with language , logic , and philosophy of mathematics. Mike Sandbothe — Applied Rorty's neopragmatism to media studies and developed a new branch that he called Media Philosophy.
Richard Shusterman philosopher of art. Jason Stanley — Defends a pragmatist form of contextualism against semantic varieties of contextualism in his Knowledge and Practical Interest. Robert B. Talisse — defends an epistemological conception of democratic politics that is explicitly opposed to Deweyan democracy and yet rooted in a conception of social epistemology that derives from the pragmatism of Charles Peirce. His work in argumentation theory and informal logic also demonstrates pragmatist leanings.
Roberto Unger — in The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound , advocates for a "radical pragmatism", one that 'de-naturalizes' society and culture, and thus insists that we can "transform the character of our relation to social and cultural worlds we inhabit rather than just to change, little by little, the content of the arrangements and beliefs that comprise them.
Isaac Levi — seeks to apply pragmatist thinking in a decision-theoretic perspective. Susan Haack — teaches at the University of Miami, sometimes called the intellectual granddaughter of C. Peirce, known chiefly for foundherentism. Nicholas Rescher — advocates a methodological pragmatism that sees functional efficacy as evidentiating validity.
Pragmatists in the extended sense [ edit ] Name Lifetime Notes Cornel West — thinker on race, politics, and religion; operates under the sign of "prophetic pragmatism". Wilfrid Sellars — broad thinker, attacked mainstream variants of foundationalism in the analytic tradition. Frank P. Ramsey — author of the philosophical work Universals. Karl-Otto Apel — author of "Charles S.
Applied essay ethics ethics intersection library philosophy time
American philosophy Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography Doctrine of internal relations Holistic pragmatism New legal realism Pragmatism as a tradition of communication theory Pragmatic model Realpolitik. In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring ed. Reprinted often, including Collected Papers v. The Meaning of Truth. Retrieved March 5, New Jersey: Pearson. Prometheus Books. Pragmatism and educational research. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Internet Archive Eprint. See pp. II, n. Reprited often, including Collected Papers v. XV, n. Peirce wrote: I have always fathered my pragmati ci sm as I have called it since James and Schiller made the word [ pragmatism ] imply "the will to believe," the mutability of truth, the soundness of Zeno's refutation of motion, and pluralism generally , upon Kant, Berkeley, and Leibniz.
After discussing James, Peirce stated Section V, fourth paragraph as the specific occasion of his coinage "pragmaticism", journalist, pragmatist, and literary author Giovanni Papini 's declaration of pragmatism's indefinability see for example "What Is Pragmatism Like", a translation published in October in Popular Science Monthly v.
Peirce in his closing paragraph wrote that "willing not to exert the will willing to believe " should not be confused with "active willing willing to control thought, to doubt, and to weigh reasons ", and discussed his dismay by that which he called the other pragmatists' "angry hatred of strict logic".
He also rejected their nominalist tendencies. But he remained allied with them about the falsity of necessitarianism and about the reality of generals and habits understood in terms of potential concrete effects even if unactualized. Beyond realism and antirealism: John Dewey and the neopragmatists. The Vanderbilt library of American philosophy.
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Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. Reprinted Collected Peirce v. Google Books Eprint. Peirce Society , v. Arisbe Eprint. Peirce also harshly criticized the Cartesian approach of starting from hyperbolic doubts rather than from the combination of established beliefs and genuine doubts.
Reprinted Collected Papers v. Rosenthal, C. The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound. Harvard University Press. American Sociological Review. Theory and Society. Online First. February 15, Retrieved February 18, Democracy and Leadership: On Pragmatism and Virtue. New York: Lexington Books. New York: Lexington. Dewey on Democracy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Shields relies primarily on Dewey's logic of Inquiry.
A pragmatist approach to the problem of knowledge in health psychology Journal of Health Psychology , 14 6 , 1— Public Administration as Pragmatic, Democratic and Objective. Public Administration Review.
Miller's 'Why old Pragmatism needs and upgrade'. Rortyan Pragmatism: 'Where's the beef' for public administration. Miller on 'Why old pragmatism needs an upgrade. Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper Texas State University. Paper Faculty Publications-Political Science.
Shields Volume 4: — Shields and Nandhini Rangarajan A pragmatist approach to the problem of knowledge in health psychology. Feminist interpretations of John Dewey. Pragmatism and feminism: Reweaving the social fabric. Where are all the pragmatists feminists? Hypatia, 6, 8— A holistically Deweyan feminism. Metaphilosophy, 32, — Duran, J. The intersection of pragmatism and feminism. Feminism and pragmatism: George Herbert Mead's ethics of care. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, 35, — Jane Addams social thought as a model for a pragmatist-feminist communitarianism.
Hypatia, 19, — Pragmatism and Feminism: Reweaving the Social Fabric. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Part II, 16 January , pp. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Thomas Dewey's new logic: a reply to Russell. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Winter ed. In Russell, Bertrand ed. Why I am not a Christian, and other essays on religion and related subjects.
New York: Simon and Schuster.
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