This researcher collected the data over a day period using two self-administered written survey instruments. The results of the study indicated weak correlations between affective and normative organizational commitment and all five leadership practices. There were no correlations found between continuance commitment and any of the leadership practices. The findings of this study added to the body of knowledge and could serve as a foundation for future research and leadership training.
Stanislus, S. A phenomenological methodology was used to explore the practical behavior, activity, and performance of individuals in microfinance institutions in Uttar Pradesh, India. Fifteen managers in the microfinance industry were interviewed. A summary of themes and results signified the necessity for adequate and timely delivery of microfinance services with low-interest rates to poor Indians for economic empowerment. Moreover, the MFI managers recommended the adoption of legal and technological strategies to reach the poor despite prevailing challenges.
Tollett, T. It is not known how managers in the federal government perceive the development of emotional intelligent skills in the workplace. The researcher interviewed 10 federal managers located in the Southwest region of the United States. The results of this study revealed that managers believed empathy is a prerequisite of emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence is a prerequisite of effective leadership, and EI leadership influences job satisfaction, employee motivation, and job performance.
A primary element established was EI leaders understand emotions of others. A connection was not established between EI and ethical behavior. The researcher recommends the federal government and other organizations embrace the importance of designing and implementing EI development and training programs. Results of this research implies more EI research is needed in regards to EI and ethical behavior in the workplace. Lastly, the researcher encourages future research regarding EI leadership and the impact at the federal employee level.
Mykeshia Tucker, M. Ethics in the Federal Government: Perceptions by Employees Keywords: Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Federal Government, Agency Theory, Deontological Theory Abstract: This qualitative, phenomenological study explores how employees perceive ethical behaviors, practices, and standards of ethics in a Federal government agency located in the Eastern United States. Ethics is considered one of the leading critical factors in achieving organizational effectiveness and plays a role in shaping the long-term success of any organization.
Deontological and agency theory provided foundations for this study. A purposive sample of 20 employees was selected to participate in this study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather insight to answer the research questions. Specifically, the findings indicate employees have experienced ethical challenges and there is a need for more ethics-related training. Additionally, the findings indicate the need for management to be more involved with upholding and setting ethical standards and enforcing rules and regulations fairly among all employees. Every agency or organization is different based on the mission and consists of a diverse culture.
Hence, the application of ethics varies widely. In view of that, the findings indicate that there is a need for further research to determine the best methods to uphold ethics and governance structures in the workplace. Zaveri, J. Explore the Perceived Leader Listening Dimensions as Predictors of Employee Organizational Commitment in a Research Organization in India Keywords: Affective commitment, Continuance commitment, Leader listening dimensions Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand to what extent, if any, the perception of leader listening dimensions relates to employee affective and continuance commitment towards the organization.
Organizations will face the challenge of retaining employees or lose them to competitors. There are few empirical studies on the association of leader listening dimensions and affective and continuance commitment. An increase in employee turnover and absenteeism leads to increase in cost and loss of time for the organizations. The two research questions studied in this quantitative study were R1: What relationship, if any, does the perception of the six leader listening dimensions relate to affective employee commitment towards the organization and, R2: What relationship, if any does the perception of six leader listening dimensions relate to continuance employee commitment towards the organization?
The methodology used was quantitative in nature. The focus of the sample was a newly established research organization in India. The theoretical framework of the study stems from the fact that efficient leadership increases commitment, which would add to the field of human resource development. The researcher conducted an online survey of 62 employees from the organization. The research design adopted was a non-experimental cross sectional quantitative study.
The results were interpreted using SPSS software. The correlation and multiple regression analysis calculated the significance level between the six independent listening variables and commitment. The results enable organizations and researchers understand the implications of listening dimensions on commitment. This would enable them have more committed employees within the organization.
Police executives have not fully committed to a new competency-based standard in the recruiting process. Without a clear understanding of the expected competency standards, applicants cannot make rational decisions in relation to their education and application preparation choices, and police organizations may not be hiring the best recruits. Police service recruiters identified post-secondary education as the preferred entry-level education for police recruits. It appears that Canadian police services have reached a level of maturity regarding the adaptation and integration of competency-based performance management into the recruiting and selection process, as well as the ongoing performance management of existing officers.
Notwithstanding, there are gaps in the selection process and in a consistent, valid approach to competency assessment of police applicants which impacts organizational efficacy. A disconnect exists between the minimum legislated educational requirements and the realities of what is happening in police organizations.
Recommendations in this study identify gaps and offer potential solutions that contribute to the growth of Canadian policing. Dash, J. Coverage to the low-income Americans through federal subsidies is feasible because majority of Americans get health coverage through the Employer-Sponsored Insurance ESI. The researcher conducted a survey of front-line retail executives in the Southern United States to see if and to what degree migration of the retail employees would occur in the Southern United States.
In the current study, Age, Ethnicity, and annual household income of the employees are somewhat likely to influence the decision of the employees to migrate from the ESI to the ACA marketplace. None of the variables were however a factor in overall modeling of relationship among the variables. Majority of the employees in the present research study continue to value the employment-based health coverage and do not have however a clear understanding of the act. Idris, A. States Keywords: Psychological capital, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, Saudi Arabia, oil and gas industries.
Abstract: Saudi Arabia is a developing country located in the Middle East. The country is known to have the largest oil reserves in the world. During the past decade, the country experienced a significant social, economic, and organizational change as a result of substantial domestic and foreign investment. The rapid economic growth created a need for seasoned management professionals and necessitated the development of human capital.
Psychological capital, a newly developed construct by academics and practitioners, is defined as the extent to which an individual operates in a positive psychological state, and this state is characterized by high self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency. Improving the positive psychological capital can lead to a better organizational commitment, favorable organizational citizenship behaviors, lower employee absenteeism, and higher job satisfaction.
This quantitative study examined the relationship among psychological capital, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment through a sample of managers in the Saudi Arabian oil and petrochemical industries. Islam, S. The Effects of Green Marketing on Consumer Behavior Keywords: Green Marketing, Green Consumer, Green Products, and Consumer Buying Behavior Abstract: It was not known if and to what extent a relationship existed between green marketing and consumer behavior as it related to age, gender, income, and education level in the United States.
The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to determine if and to what extent a relationship exists between green marketing and consumer behavior as it related to age, gender, income, and education level in the United States. The following research questions guided this study.
What relationship, if any, exists between green marketing and consumer behavior as it relates to gender? What relationship, if any, exists between green marketing and consumer behavior as it relates to age? What relationship, if any, exists between green marketing and consumer behavior as it relates to income? What relationship, if any, exists between green marketing and consumer behavior as it relates to education level? Consumers with minimum age of 18 years were qualified to complete the survey. The first set of complete and full responses were considered for the purposes of this study.
The data collection occurred over a period of two weeks using a self-administered internet-based electronic survey. The results of the study indicated a positive correlation between being male to green purchasing behavior, higher age to more green purchasing behavior, more income to more green purchasing, and higher education to more green purchasing behavior.
The findings of this study adds to the body of knowledge pertaining to green marketing and consumer behavior as it relates to gender, age, income, and education level. Ogolo, C. Women businesses, while laudably increasing globally and in the UK, remains hugely disadvantaged, more likely to shutter than male owned businesses. Such trends are due to the historical nature of women social and business disparities, fears regarding lack of business skills and competences, and failure.
Mentoring has been adduced as one valuable interventional tool to change the tide. As a result, to thoroughly understand he nature of this phenomenon, especially the positive valence of mentoring as an interventional tool for improving the situation, this study used the phenomenological methodological paradigm to in depth assess the experiences of sampled women entrepreneurs in the eastern UK, who applied mentoring to their business ventures. The study validates some of the previous scholarship on mentoring, relative to entrepreneurs, and women, highlight the immense potentials of mentoring for fostering women competitive business advantages.
The research is theoretically grounded upon mentoring theory as privileged by Kram , and the perspectives framed by liberal feminist theorists highlighting the historical nature of women social and business disadvantages, and the need to transcend these barriers. The findings of this study determined that women who applied mentoring tended to excel in their businesses reflect the crucial role of public policy in fostering such differences. The UK government and private agencies are investing in mentoring for women businesses.
This, implies as advocated by the liberal feminist theorists that policies leading to fair playing fields ensure differences. This study recommend policies and programs that focuses upon acclaimed research-based valuable tools in engendering social transformation for all. Weinburger, C. Abstract: The United States military veteran population historically ranks higher in unemployment rates than their civilian counterparts have in similar demographic categories.
Very little literature existed concerning veteran utilization of SNS to gain job information, or if any relationship existed to their egocentric network alters. The sample population consisted of U. Navy Veterans and Active Duty Sailors within 12 months of separation or retirement from active duty. The researcher examined independent variables of age, gender, education level, and military rank to determine if these were contributing factors to having received job information via LinkedIn. It used a quantitative approach for its methodology and a descriptive design. It also employed a non-behavioral observational research strategy and used record analysis to collect the data.
Secondary data were collected by means of a data collection and recording form sent to the management of the various utilities, from websites, and other publications. The data were analyzed using data envelopment analysis DEA and the discounted least cost method. Recommendations for future research include including all of the utilities in the Eastern Caribbean, adding Monte Carlo analysis, taking into account market power, using hourly load blocks and follow-up studies to determine how the efficiency gains will be shared among the stakeholders, the cost to establish an Eastern Caribbean Wholesale Electricity Generation Market, and the PESTEL challenges.
Goeres, J. With the advancements in the area of technology and the positive outcomes associated with telecommuting, more organizations could incorporate telecommuting as a work environment option, making it beneficial to understand the leadership behaviors necessary to improve employee engagement within the telecommuting environment. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine if a relationship exists between leadership behavior and employee engagement within the telecommuting environment.
The theoretical foundation for this study was self-determination theory. The following research questions guided this study: What is the correlation between consideration leadership behavior and employee engagement among telecommuters? What is the correlation between initiating structure leadership behavior and employee engagement among telecommuters? The data collection occurred over a period of one week using a self-administered internet-based survey. The results of the study indicated that a strong, positive correlation existed between both consideration and initiating structure leadership behavior and employee engagement among telecommuting employees.
The findings of this study resulted in an addition to the body of knowledge and could serve as a foundation for future research regarding this relationship within the telecommuting environment. Reiss, T. Abstract: A grounded theory research is of significant value when examining in depth the key factors impacting profitability in the food industry.
Five Israeli food companies, which are different in age, size and their business models, were selected to optimally serve the purposes of the study. The selected methodology included a grounded theory approach, a purposeful sampling involving 51 executives from the five abovementioned companies and two interview formats: An open-ended interview for the five CEOs and a structured interview adopted from Preziosi's Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaire for the remaining managers.
This study revealed additional and well-grounded insights into the decreasing profitability of the food companies under investigation from to The findings are on the whole in agreement with the reviewed literature. However, a number of significant inconsistencies were also identified. On the theoretical level, the researcher recommends further investigation of additional Israeli and global food companies in order to increase the external validity of the results. On the practical level, the researcher recommends for government and industrial institutions to increase the viability of companies within the food industry by addressing the high level of concentration and diminishing its effect, especially concerning the SME.
This research has enriched the current body of knowledge regarding the struggle for profitability of food companies by outlining nine key categories perceived to be the predominant causes of the decreasing profitability issue.
This study is therefore of significant value to the current theoretical literature regarding both the Israeli and the global food industry. Sol B. Reyes, K. Abstract: Most prior research concerning electronic health record adoption was conducted in many parts of the United States, including New York, Massachusetts, California, Texas, Washington, and the country in an aggregate. However, none of the research studies was focused on the Central Valley California Region.
Little attention has been paid to the challenges for ambulatory physician practices in implementing such a complex system. This is significant because these practices serve a large proportion of the population and failure to address this issue could lead to an increase in the disparity in access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges faced by these small physician practices in the Central Valley California Region in implementing the electronic health record.
The research question sought to understand these challenges in order to encourage implementation of the electronic health record. A qualitative, non-experimental, exploratory, single-case study was conducted using the conceptual framework of diffusion of innovation theory Data were collected by conducting interviews. Data were analyzed for commonalities and grouped into themes. Findings were eight common themes that emerged as the challenges encountered by ambulatory care practitioners in the Central Valley California Region during implementation of an electronic health record system.
As more small physician practices integrate into the electronic health record system, the implications for social change are that the quality of healthcare may increase. Singleton, D. The study used a quantitative, correlational research design to answer the research questions, which asked whether or not statistically significant correlations were observed between human resources development and systemic practices, utility, and organizational results in the public and private sectors.
A purposive sample was drawn from the membership of the National Contract Management Association to obtain the data necessary to answer the research questions. Once data was collected, it was reviewed for missing values and outliers. Then, the data was coded and imported into SPSS version The data was first analyzed descriptively to identify similarities and differences between public and private sector contracting professionals.
Additionally, the data was arranged by construct and analyzed for correlations between HRD and systemic practices, utility, and organizational results. The data were evaluated against each of these theories. More than half of all American adults have a close family member who is alcohol dependent or has a history of alcoholism. Objective: To examine the effectiveness of alcohol disease management programs on individuals who have an alcohol misuse disorder. Starr, A. Organizational Practices to Business Practices within India Keywords: Hofstede, Culture difference, Personality, Outsourcing, Work values, Organizational structures Abstract: In an effort to improve profit margins organizations within the United States have looked at outsourcing as a necessary business strategy.
India has become a country of choice due to its low labor costs and strong technical expertise.
Main components of a master’s thesis or dissertation
However, outsourcing to India has been plagued with cultural differences and compatibility issues. In order to expand successfully, organizations within the United States must understand and be sensitive to these cultural differences. Research indicated that there has been a shift in work-related values and presented some insight toward issues that arise in outsourcing agreements. Diggs-Ofoe, S. McCall, K. L Pollock, S. Mpozayo, C. What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc?
Multiple hypotheses: There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one. If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination.
Main components of a master’s thesis or dissertation – Language Center
Avoid bandwagons: A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: why should we care? This section should be rich in references to similar work and background needed to interpret results. Is there material that does not contribute to one of the elements listed above?
If so, this may be material that you will want to consider deleting or moving. Break up the section into logical segments by using subheads. Conclusions What is the strongest and most important statement that you can make from your observations? If you met the reader at a meeting six months from now, what do you want them to remember about your paper?
Refer back to problem posed, and describe the conclusions that you reached from carrying out this investigation, summarize new observations, new interpretations, and new insights that have resulted from the present work. Include the broader implications of your results. Do not repeat word for word the abstract, introduction or discussion.
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Recommendations Include when appropriate most of the time Remedial action to solve the problem. Further research to fill in gaps in our understanding. Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al. Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Pfirman et al. Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone.
Pfirman, S. Stute, H. Simpson, and J. Pechenik, J. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Pitelka, D. Child Review of ciliary structure and function. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Sambrotto, R. Stute, M. Clark, P. Schlosser, W. Broecker, and G. Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico.
Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc. List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Note: Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument. Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in.
The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section. It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data. These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection.
If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results. Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order. Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.
Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them.
Adenrele Adebayo says:
If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section. Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data. Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify. In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions.
Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work. If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it. After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section.
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In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure. If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so. If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section.
This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper. Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section. If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so. You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction. Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction.
You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc. Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc. Include an index figure map showing and naming all locations discussed in paper. You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss.
Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated? Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. Could chart junk be eliminated? Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated? Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space? Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table? Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Does the figure caption guide the reader's eye to the "take-home lesson" of the figure?
Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible. If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be. If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation.
Final Thesis Make 3 final copies: 1 to mentor and 2 to department, so that we can have 2 readers. Final thesis should be bound. Printed cleanly on white paper. Double-spaced using point font. Double-sided saves paper. Include page numbers. Resources The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses. Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for. Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help. The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them.
Also see additional books listed as Resources. Copy Editing Proof read your thesis a few times. Check your spelling. Make sure that you use complete sentences Check your grammar: punctuation, sentence structure, subject-verb agreement plural or singular , tense consistency, etc. Give it to others to read and comment. Content Editing logic repetition, relevance style. Avoiding ambiguity Do not allow run-on sentences to sneak into your writing; try semicolons. Avoid clauses or phrases with more than two ideas in them.
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