R Edition: 2nd ed. The college writer : a guide to thinking, writing and researching by VanderMey, Randall. Edition: 3rd ed. C Edition: Fifth Edition. M36 The writer's world : essays by Gaetz, Lynne; Phadke, Suneeti. G34 A writer's workshop : crafting paragraphs, building essays by Brannan, Bob. B69 The contemporary reader by Goshgarian, Gary. Edition: 9th ed. The prose reader : essays for thinking, reading, and writing by Flachmann, Kim; Flachmann, Michael.
Edition: 8th ed.
P D Real skills with readings : sentences and paragraphs for college, work, and everyday life by Anker, Susan; Becker, Suzy. Edition: 4th ed. Strategies for successful writing. Back to the lake : a reader for writers by Cooley, Thomas. Edition: 10th ed. Location s : QA G74 W74 Writing empirical research reports :a basic guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences by Pyrczak, Fred; Bruce, Randall R.
P97 Group, c Other title: Twelve easy steps to successful research papers. The prose reader : essays for thinking, reading, and writing by Flachmann, Kim; Flachmann, Michael. Edition: 8th ed. P D Real skills with readings : sentences and paragraphs for college, work, and everyday life by Anker, Susan; Becker, Suzy.
Edition: 4th ed. Strategies for successful writing.
Back to the lake : a reader for writers by Cooley, Thomas. Edition: 10th ed. Location s : QA G74 W74 Writing empirical research reports :a basic guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences by Pyrczak, Fred; Bruce, Randall R.
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P97 Group, c Other title: Twelve easy steps to successful research papers. M47 Location s : General Stacks LB G53 C7 K57 b. Edition: 7th ed. N Real writing with readings : paragraphs and essays for college, work, and everyday life by Anker, Susan. A55 Learning Plus: self-paced learning skills and strategies by Learning Plus.
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The Bedford guide for college writers : with reader, research manual, and handbook by Kennedy, X. K49 R33 Richard Harvey. The project team is part of the library staff. Digitizing, deposit and preservation will be realized in the library facilities, with library material and collections. And it is also essential for funding. In the past, lack of funds has been put forward to explain the low uptake of institutional repositories.
A large number of institutions, especially public-funded institutions in Africa, including many public universities and research institutes, do not have the staff with relevant skills and money to implement digital institutional repositories" Chisenga, Chisenga's statement is corroborated by Irikefe et al.
But money is just one of many problems Many labs are poorly equipped Financial and logistical support for science is typically divided between many ministries with little coordination Even when research is successful, it is hard to push developments to the marketplace. Again, the context in Togo appears to be more favourable, and the development of a new Higher Education system may be the right opportunity to obtain institutional support and funding from universities and libraries.
Yet, the project management must be aware of uncertainty and risks related to acquisition of hardware and software, to characteristics of items in the holdings, and to infrastructure, and should adopt an agile, highly flexible, reactive and interactive approach, able to anticipate and to adapt to upcoming problems. A couple of years ago, Chisenga criticized a general lack of awareness and understanding of the concepts of open access in Africa: "The new trends are not filtrating into the continent due to lack of adequate advocacy and appropriate capacity building relating to these technologies.
Many people still do not know about the Open Access Initiative". Due to political and scientific efforts, the environment started to change and today, research scientists, policy makers and information professionals appear better prepared "to push for investment and development of digital-based information repositories and services" ibid.
Yet, in order to achieve and maintain community support and acceptance, the project team must be clear on the significance of community. For whom are they working? Who are the users? The answer to this question is not irrelevant and will impact the selection of metadata, classification and indexing, referencing and communication. Also, the strategy of advocacy and information about deposit etc.
In this context, the main argument should be valorisation of local content and finding solutions for local problems. As Peter Suber states, "the basic idea of OA is simple". Yet, our case study suggests that in spite of the global nature of open access, the challenges and solutions are local. Instead of a one-size-fits-all solution, open access projects should take care of regional or country-based priorities and specific partnerships and communication strategies McBean, We can learn from global experiences but need to adjust them to local conditions.
This means that first of all, any project must clearly define its priority. Is it access to scientific information? Is it to increase the impact of local production? Or is it development of regional capacity for research and higher education? Is it a solution for local problems with poor holdings, preservation and interlibrary loan?
leondumoulin.nl/language/math/addicted-to-quack.php Or is it all of them? Second point, any project must be aware of the need for advocacy in favour of digital information and open access, especially for local content. Confronted with major economic and social challenges, for most of the sub-Saharan countries research may not be the political priority of the moment. Nevertheless, for all of them open access to scientific information appears to be an option of choice to foster scientific development and integration with the global research community.
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The importance and need for self-archiving and benefits of open access should be made clear Third, perhaps more than in other countries, advocacy must be accompanied by capacity building "in digital information management Are open repositories a solution for major local problems like language barriers, long-term preservation, funding and infrastructures? The future will show whether open access contributes to reducing the digital divide between sub-Saharan Africa and other countries or, at least, between the West African region and South Africa, or whether it will instead consolidate this divide.
Adams, et al. Ani, et al. Information Development 21 3 Dahmane In Elpub. Chan, et al. Chisenga Derfoufi Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 36 Ezema Library Hi Tech 31 2. Irikefe, et al. Nature : Juznic De Gruyter Saur.
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Kakai Kavulya The Electronic Library 25 3 Britz Journal of Information Science 36 5 : Magara Information Development 26 1 Mavodza McBean Information Development 21 4 Mutula Program: electronic library and information systems 39 2 The Electronic Library 26 4 : Nordling Nature Nwagwu The Journal of Academic Librarianship 39 1 Lipinski The Grey Journal 8 3 Suber Open access. Willinsky His research interests are scientific information and communication, especially Open Access and Grey Literature. He is library system manager in charge of the bibliographic database of Kara University.
He is also project director for the digitization and online dissemination of PhD theses in Togo. Search D-Lib:.
Introduction Open access, defined as "a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community" 1 , has become a significant part of scientific communication. Literature overview The crucial role of scientific and technical information STI in the development of countries in Africa is highlighted by different authors and institutions. Open repositories in sub-Saharan countries Open archives, in particular institutional repositories are considered to be valuable for African research and development because "they can offer instant access to information and knowledge resources being generated on the continent.
The Togo context Togo is a small tropical country in West Africa, with a land area of 56, km 2 , a population of 7. The "Theses Togo" project The following section will present the main characteristics of an open access project that was submitted to the Togo ministry of higher education in
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