Research papers person centred counselling


Introduction

He is not motivated to change and seems skeptical about therapy.

Given these situations, the person centered counselor still has faith in his ability channel his own path and trusts that he has within himself the necessary resources for personal growth. She encourages Billy to freely speak about the perceived discrepancy between the person he sees himself as being and the person he would like to become; about his feelings of being a disappointment, or not being man enough, being inadequate, about his concerns and hopelessness.

The therapist strives to create an atmosphere of freedom and security that will encourage Billy to explore the threatening aspects of himself.


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To achieve this, the therapist listens intently to Billy and observes the manner in which he expresses himself. She attempts to be empathic by taking time to understand what it is like to live in his world. She conveys to him the basic attitudes of understanding and accepting, and by using positive regards he may be encouraged to drop his pretenses and defenses thus he can more fully and freely explore his personal concerns. Billy has poor self esteem and a poor evaluation of his self worth.

Peter F. Schmid, Person-Centred Psychotherapy

He wants to be loved although he has difficulty believing that others really like him. He hopes to feel equal to others and a sense of acceptance and belonging. Billy needs to feel that the therapist is genuinely interested in him by creating a supportive, trusting and encouraging atmosphere.

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The relationship will serve as a learning tool for Billy to be more accepting of his weaknesses and strengths. He has the opportunity to openly talk about and face his reality and of being a failure, inadequate and hopelessness. He can explore how he feels judged by his family and peers. He can explore his hurt feelings over not feeling loved and wanted.

He can also explore the loneliness and isolation that he feels, and his addiction to alcohol and drugs as a means of dulling these feelings. Point out to Billy that he is no longer totally alone, for he is taking the risk of letting his therapist into his private world.

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Comparison of person centred therapy with rational emotive therapy

By letting the therapist in, Billy gradually gets a realistic view of his experiences and is able to accept and change his own feelings and attitudes. The person-centred approach views the client as their own best authority on their own experience, and it views the client as being fully capable of fulfilling their own potential for growth.

It recognizes, however, that achieving potential requires favourable conditions and that under adverse conditions, individuals may well not grow and develop in the ways that they otherwise could. In particular, when individuals are denied acceptance and positive regard from others — or when that positive regard is made conditional upon the individual behaving in particular ways — they may begin to lose touch with what their own experience means for them, and their innate tendency to grow in a direction consistent with that meaning may be stifled.

One reason this may occur is that individuals often cope with the conditional acceptance offered to them by others by gradually coming to incorporate these conditions into their own views about themselves. Over time, their intrinsic sense of their own identity and their own evaluations of experience and attributions of value may be replaced by creations partly or even entirely due to the pressures felt from other people.

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That is, the individual displaces personal judgements and meanings with those of others. Unfortunately, disturbance is apt to continue as long as the individual depends on the conditionally positive judgements of others for their sense of self-worth and as long as the individual relies on a self-concept designed in part to earn those positive judgements. Experiences which challenge the self-concept are apt to be distorted or even denied altogether in order to preserve it.

The person-centred approach maintains that three core conditions provide a climate conducive to growth and therapeutic change. They contrast starkly with those conditions believed to be responsible for psychological disturbance. The core conditions are:. The first — unconditional positive regard — means that the counsellor accepts the client unconditionally and non-judgementally.

The client is free to explore all thoughts and feelings, positive or negative, without danger of rejection or condemnation.


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  8. The third — congruence — means that the counsellor is authentic and genuine. The counsellor does not present an aloof professional facade, but is present and transparent to the client. As a result, person-centred theory takes these core conditions as both necessary and sufficient for therapeutic movement to occur — i. Indeed, the achievement of identifying and articulating these core conditions and launching a significant programme of scientific research to test hypotheses about them was one of the greatest contributions of Carl Rogers, the American psychologist who first began formulating the person-centred approach in the s and s.

    Notably, person-centred theory suggests that there is nothing essentially unique about the counselling relationship and that in fact healthy relationships with significant others may well manifest the core conditions and thus be therapeutic, although normally in a transitory sort of way, rather than consistently and continually. Finally, as noted at the outset, the person-centred approach takes clients as their own best authorities.

    The person-centred therapist makes every attempt to foster an environment in which clients can encounter themselves and become more intimate with their own thoughts, feelings and meanings. On the face of it, this criticism reflects a misunderstanding of the real challenges of consistently manifesting unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding and congruence.

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