Abstract history essay


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Once you have identified these, write some brief notes as to why they were so influential and how they fit together in relation to your overall topic. You may also want to think about what key terminology is paramount to the reader being able to understand your dissertation. While you may have a glossary or list of abbreviations included in your dissertation, your background section offers some opportunity for you to highlight two or three essential terms.

When reading a background section, there are two common mistakes that are most evident in student writing, either too little is written or far too much! In writing the background information, one to two pages is plenty. You need to be able to arrive at your research focus quite quickly and only provide the basic information that allows your reader to appreciate your research in context.

Writing your dissertation introduction, conclusion and abstract

It is essential that you are able to clarify the area s you intend to research and you must explain why you have done this research in the first place. One key point to remember is that your research focus must link to the background information that you have provided above. While you might write the sections on different days or even different months, it all has to look like one continuous flow.

Make sure that you employ transitional phrases to ensure that the reader knows how the sections are linked to each other. The research focus leads into the value, aims and objectives of your research, so you might want to think of it as the tie between what has already been done and the direction your research is going. Instead, you might consider introducing the main focus, explaining why research in your area is important, and the overall importance of the research field. This should set you up well to present your aims and objectives.

The biggest mistake that students make is simply not including this sub-section. There are many possible ways to answer the question about the value of your research. In some cases, it may be that your research is somewhat urgent e.

Whatever reason you come up with to address the value added question, make sure that somewhere in this section you directly state the importance or added value of the research. Typically, a research project has an overall aim. Again, this needs to be clearly stated in a direct way. The objectives generally stem from the overall aim and explain how that aim will be met.

Writing in Different Genres

They are often organised numerically or in bullet point form and are terse statements that are clear and identifiable. There are four things you need to remember when creating research objectives. These are: Appropriateness each objective is clearly related to what you want to study Distinctness each objective is focused and incrementally assists in achieving the overall research aim Clarity each objective avoids ambiguity Being achievable each objective is realistic and can be completed within a reasonable timescale In creating research objectives that conform to the above, you may want to consider: Starting each objective with a key word e.

Beginning with a simple objective to help set the scene in the study. Finding a good numerical balance — usually two is too few and six is too many. Aim for approximately objectives. Remember that you must address these research objectives in your research. You cannot simply mention them in your dissertation introduction and then forget about them.

Just like any other part of the dissertation, this section must be referenced in the findings and discussion — as well as in the conclusion. This section has offered the basic sections of a dissertation introduction chapter. There are additional bits and pieces that you may choose to add. The research questions have already been highlighted as one option; an outline of the structure of the entire dissertation may be another example of information you might like to include.

As long as your dissertation introduction is organised and clear, you are well on the way to writing success with this chapter. It is your job at this point to make one last push to the finish to create a cohesive and organised final chapter. If your concluding chapter is unstructured or some sort of ill-disciplined rambling, the person marking your work might be left with the impression that you lacked the appropriate skills for writing or that you lost interest in your own work. To avoid these pitfalls, you will need to know what is expected of you and what you need to include in your successful dissertation conclusion chapter.

There are three parts at a minimum that need to exist within your dissertation conclusion. These include:.

Abstracts - The Writing Center

Research objectives — a summary of your findings and the resulting conclusions. Furthermore, just like any other chapter in your dissertation, your conclusion must begin with an introduction usually very short at about a paragraph in length. As a result of the completion of the literature review , along with the empirical research that you completed, what did you find out in relation to your personal research objectives? What conclusions have you come to? A common mistake by students when addressing these questions is to again go into the analysis of the data collection and findings.

This is not necessary, as the reader has likely just finished reading your discussion chapter and does not need to go through it all again. This section is not about persuading, you are simply informing the reader of the summary of your findings. Recommendations The purpose of a recommendations section is to offer the reader some advice on what you think should happen next. Failing to include such information can result in the loss of marks. Including these recommendations as implicit suggestions within other parts of the brief e.

There are two types of recommendations you can make. The first is to make a recommendation that is specific to the evidence of your study, the second is to make recommendations for future research.

10 Good Abstract Examples That Will Kickstart Your Brain

While certain recommendations will be specific to your data , there are always a few that seem to appear consistently throughout student work. These tend to include things like a larger sample size, different context, increased longitudinal time frame, etc. If you get to this point and feel you need to add words to your dissertation, this is an easy place to do so — just be cautious that making recommendations that have little or no obvious link to the research conclusions are not beneficial.

A good recommendations section will link to previous conclusions, and since this section was ultimately linked to your research aims and objectives, the recommendations section then completes the package.

11 Tips for writing a great abstract

Your main contribution to knowledge likely exists within your empirical work though in a few select cases it might be drawn from the literature review. Implicit in this section is the notion that you are required to make an original contribution to research, and you are, in fact, telling the reader what makes your research study unique.

In order to achieve this, you need to explicitly tell the reader what makes your research special. There are many ways to do this, but perhaps the most common is to identify what other researchers have done and how your work builds upon theirs.

gofilyjizova.ga Another obvious way that you can demonstrate that you have made a contribution to knowledge is to highlight the publications that you have contributed to the field if any. So, for example, if you have published a chapter of your dissertation in a journal or you have given a conference presentation and have conference proceedings, you could highlight these as examples of how you are making this contribution. In summing up this section, remember that a dissertation conclusion is your last opportunity to tell the reader what you want them to remember.

The chapter needs to be comprehensive and must include multiple sub-sections. A good abstract will contain the following elements: A statement of the problem or issue that you are investigating — including why research on this topic is needed. Different institutions often have different guidelines for writing the abstract, so it is best to check with your department prior to beginning. When you are writing the abstract, you must find the balance between too much information and not enough.

You want the reader to be able to review the abstract and get a general overall sense of what you have done. Spending the time needed to do this will result in a better title. Many readers will only read the Abstract of your manuscript. In most cases the abstract is the only part of your article that appears in indexing databases such as Web of Science or PubMed and so will be the most accessed part of your article; making a good impression will encourage researchers to read your full paper. A well written abstract can also help speed up the peer-review process.

During peer review, referees are usually only sent the abstract when invited to review the paper. Therefore, the abstract needs to contain enough information about the paper to allow referees to make a judgement as to whether they have enough expertise to review the paper and be engaging enough for them to want to review it.


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Answering these questions lets readers know the most important points about your study, and helps them decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper. Make sure you follow the proper journal manuscript formatting guidelines when preparing your abstract. TIP: Journals often set a maximum word count for Abstracts, often words, and no citations.

This is to ensure that the full Abstract appears in indexing services. If database search engines can find your journal manuscript, readers will be able to find it too. This will increase the number of people reading your manuscript, and likely lead to more citations. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.

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Title, Abstract and Keywords The Importance of Titles The title of your manuscript is usually the first introduction readers and reviewers have to your work. This title has too many unnecessary words. Your Abstract should answer these questions about your manuscript: What was done?

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