Introduction: Antibiotic resistance Antibiotics are a group of natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic chemical compounds that target essential metabolic processes in bacteria trough disrupting the structure and function of the bacterial cell membrane, inhibiting bacterial cell-wall construction, inhibiting the synthesis of essential polypeptides or interfering with the synthesis of RNA and DNA see Table 1. Antibiotics are classified on two major groups, bactericidal actively cause bacterial death and bacteriostatic antibiotics prevent the further growth of bacterial colonies. Very soon after the introduction of the first commercial antibiotic penicillin into the global use, a great number of pathogenic bacteria species have evolved ability to carry and transmit antibiotic resistance via horizontal and vertical gene transfer to other species 2.
Resistance to certain antibiotic can be intrinsically obtained via random mutations in plasmid and chromosomal genes or by lateral gene transfer. The resistance of a bacterial species to an antibiotic is defined as the ability to resist the action of an antibiotic as a result of the inherited or gained structural or functional characteristics 3 see Figure 1.
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One of the most important factors which accelerate the natural evolution of bacteria is increased consumption and the inappropriate use of antibiotics. Share this link with a friend: Copied! Other Related Materials 31 pages. Clincial microbiology review - extended-spectrum beta-lactamases - a clinical update. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Net at DigitalEssay.
Net Practical experience is an integral part of any educational process. LindaZakout Hi, I wanted to ask how well you did and what grade you got on your extended essay? No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Wellnitz, One of the most serious human pollution impacts has been the enrichment of freshwater with phosphate, which promotes the growth of harmful populations of Elodea waterweeds , Pediastrum boryanum green algae , and cyanobacteria blue-green algae.
This process, which converts clean lakes into polluted ones, is known as eutrophication E. Graham, M. Wilcox, Oligotrophic is a condition where the clean and clear water are found can be stream or lakes. These waters are defined by low mineral nutrient content and low primary productivity the amount of carbon fixed in photosynthesis per unit area per year , but high species diversity. Although many different kinds of phytoplankton and other organisms may occur in oligotrophic waters, they are few and far between. Such waters produce desirable game fish and do not generate harmful algal blooms or excessive growth of weeds E.
Meanwhile, eutrophic waters have a high mineral nutrient content and primary productivity, but low species diversity.
Eutrophic waters are not known for good fishing unless they have been artificially stocked with fish, and people regard them as degraded waters having low quality. Eutrophic freshwaters may be crowded with fast- growing, weedy plants that may entangle swimmers, interfere with boat traffic, and shade out phytoplankton in the underlying waters. There are many types of pollutant such as poisonous chemicals and metals, radioactive substance, toxic, pesticides and fertilizer such as nitrates and phosphates.
When these pollutants dissolve in water and absorbed by algae, these can lead to dangerous food chain. This is because, when the contaminated algae are eaten by small water animal, the small water animal will be eaten by frogs or fish.
When the frogs or fish eat the small water animal, they also consume the chemical contain in the algae. When human eat the fish, the dangerous chemical build up in their body too.
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This may lead to the birth defects or illness such as cancer as the long-time pass. Moreover, the pollutants can affect human in many ways such as drinking impure water, eating contaminated fish, bathing and swimming in polluted water as the polluted water can irritate the skin and cause serious problems such as skin cancer. When rains fall, the rain will carry with them the chemicals on the field as a runoff. This runoff will enter the pond, lake of rivers and creates a mixture of water- chemical.
Naturally, the pond changes over time as the eutrophication take place. The more plants grow in the water, the more the dead plant piles up on the bottom, hence the pond become shallower and warmer. As the plant matter decays increases, the oxygen levels in the water decreases.
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In addition, when the fertilizer contents in the pond increases, this process will speeds up. The thick layers of scum form on the surface of pond water and this prevent the sunlight to penetrate the base of the pond, hence retarded the process of photosynthesis of the base pond plant. The died plant is decomposed by bacteria that undergoes aerobic respiration. As the time past, more plant will die because lack of oxygen. Even though phytoplankton algae are small but they are big enough to be seen though a microscope E. They able to grow on the surface of water by manipulating the water motions that suspend and circulate them.
This process exposes phytoplankton to a constant supply of dissolve mineral nutrients, which they absorb directly from the water. Some features that contribute the survive of the phytoplankton are the present of flagella, spines, formation of large colonies of cells, and coatings of mucilage. These features help them swim or stay afloat and defend phytoplankton from some type of hungry aquatic animals. One of the characteristics of eutrophic water is they are cloudy because it is concentrated of suspended cyanobacteria.
Lakes having persistent and enduring cyanobacterial blooms are described as hypereutrophic. Domestic animals should not be allowed to drink water having a visible blue-green bloom, and people should limit their exposure when swimming or water-skiing in such waters. There are two different sources of river water that will be examine which are one with the source from the vegetable farm and another one is source from the domestic sewage.
In order to determine which river is more polluted, I will look at the oxygen level contain in the water samples from both rivers.
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This is because, the cleanliness level of water usually is depends on their enrichment of oxygen which is a very important element for an organism to sustain their life especially for the aquatic life. The technique that I will use is by measuring the oxygen level content in the water in five different places. This requires the 0. The time taken for the 0.
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The significance of this study is to know which factor affects the most massive growth of Pediastrum Boryanum so that people can aware the factor and reduce the usage of that particular factor. Hence, the pollution can be reduced. In this experiment, comparison of two rivers that each river have different factor to affect algal bloom.
In river A, the source of water is originates from the domestic sewage. Figure 1 show river A Sungai Kenawar which has no algal bloom on its surface.
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The source of this river originates from the domestic sewage. Meanwhile, in river B, the source of water is originates from the vegetable farms. This farm consist of various type of vegetables such as brinjal Solanum melogena , spinach Spinacia oleracea and sweet nail. These types of vegetables consume commercial fertilizers which consist of fertilizers nutrient ratio which is commonly used by the gardener is a fertilizer with a ratio of Nardozzi.
This ratio indicates of the ratio of nitrogen, phosphate and potash and it is considered as a complete fertilizer because it contains all nutrients needed by the plants to grow. On the surface of the water of river B, it can be seen a layer of green algae. The source of this river is originates from the vegetables farm that consumes commercials fertilizers. Figure 3 show the three types of vegetables that are planted in the vegetable farms.
From the left, image A is brinjal Solanum melogena , image B is spinach Spinacia oleracea and image C is swamp cabbage Ipomoea aquatica. It can be seen that on the soil, there are fertilizers on it. Five samples in three trials in three different points along the river are taken. This water samples is then kept in the reagent bottles to make sure there is no additional of oxygen or oxidation process occur. Massive growth of Pediastrum Boryanum can be influenced by certain factor such as nourish of nutrition from certain fertilizers commercial fertilizers. The collected samples of river water are then tested by 0.
The higher the BOD, the lower the concentration of dissolve oxygen in that water. Hence, the water is claimed as polluted. The faster the time of the 0. The variables that are being controlled are the concentration of the methylene blue solution and the volume of water samples. The concentration of methylene blue solution used is 0. The volume of water samples also controlled by making sure that the 50 ml of water samples are used in each reagent bottles.
These two variables should keep controlled as it may effects the result of the experiment if it were not controlled. The uncontrolled variables in this experiment are the environment of the cupboard that stores the reagent bottles containing water samples. Even though the cupboard is covered by using blinds, there are some light that could still penetrate the cupboard and hits the reagent bottles. There are several safety precautions that have to take serious while doing this case study. First, take the water samples possibly at the centre of the river.
To do this, I have to make sure the real depth of the river by using a long wooden stick. I insert the wooden stick inside the centre of the river and take the reading of the highest water level. Next, I have to wear a pair of thick soled shoe because there are chances of the base of the river contains sharp object such as off stump, rock and broken glass. By wearing this shoe, I will keep my leg safe from any accidental injuries.
Moreover, the river water is cloudy and has limited sight to the bottom of the river. This is because in river B, it contains the nutrient supplied from the dissolved fertilizers from the vegetable farm that nourish the growth of Pediastrum Boryanum.
This algal will cover the surface of the river. Hence prevent the penetration of sunlight to the bottom of the river. So, the aquatic plants unable to undergo photosynthesis and no oxygen are produced. As the time passes, the aquatic plant died, then the decomposers will decompose the dead plant and this process required oxygen. Thus, the dissolve oxygen concentration decreases and finally the river are no longer suitable for other aquatic life to live there.
This reagent bottles need to be not leaking. This is because the reagent bottles will used to store the water samples from the river water. The stopper used to be functioning well as it must prevent the diffusion of atmospheric oxygen with the water samples.
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