Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned In late August, , Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed.
Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion. Financial Concepts Used to Execute. As per IC Sec. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to.
The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario. Introduction Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1, people died as a result of…… [Read More]. Local Team Response Communication Hitches. There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50, troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Pp Politics and decision making process In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…… [Read More].
Sar Teams That Responded to. Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts.
The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…… [Read More]. Psychology in the Year United States. Psychology In the year , United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem? Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…… [Read More]. Strategic Communication Leading Through Strategic.
Chennameni, Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…… [Read More]. Duty to Rescue' in U S. Here, criminal law is of course preemptive in all jurisdictions, yet enforcement is restricted to agencies dedicated to law enforcement investigation and apprehension of individuals.
In spite of billions of dollars spent on homeland security, in the aftermath of Katrina pediatric-specific preparations continue to lag behind. Lack of disaster readiness for hospitalized children and for those undergoing reunification process sheds light on the disjuncture of public administration duty to rescue of minors; regardless of state intervention as 'duty' in all other areas of their lives i. Children's advocates argue that, "federal and state policy makers should dedicate research funding for the development of redundant strategies for implementation in states to assure timely reunification of infants, toddlers, and children and with their correct parents and caregivers" Dolan and Krug, Articulation of those terms and the implications of not doing so are inflected in a broader discussion that is…… [Read More].
Emergency Occurring Is Inevitable Although. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1, and expanding 10 regional offices Hsu. The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently Hsu. The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…… [Read More]. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here.
Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…… [Read More]. Federal State and Local Response. This problem was compounded by the fact that many of the people that stayed behind were low-income, had many children, or were elderly.
Some also stayed because they could not take their pets and would not leave them behind. Many of these disadvantaged people needed the help much more rapidly than they got it, especially if they were elderly and infirm, or if they had young children that needed to be taken care of. They needed food, water, diapers, etc.
Who is to blame for slow Katrina response? - Words | Research Paper Example
While some people looted simply because they could, others broke into businesses and stole water, diapers, and non-perishable food - things that they should have been able to get for free, much sooner than the state actually provided it. The state government had an obligation to take care of its own people, and it appeared that this was…… [Read More]. Role of Media and Its Effects. This viewpoint contrasts sharply with the ways in which disasters, and those affected by disaster, are portrayed by the media. Tierney and colleagues' article "Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina" illustrates that the public draws much of its information about ongoing disasters from media outlets which both create and perpetuate a series of negative myths which do nothing to alleviate the suffering of those directly impacted by disaster.
Hurricane Katrina serves as a strong example of the manner in which a media framework can directly…… [Read More]. Terrorism Preparedness Since September 11 the. Terrorism Preparedness Since September 11, , the United States has made a significant progress guiding against terrorist attacks using terrorism preparedness to forestall further terrorism attacks in the United States. Terrorism preparedness exercise is a broad range of response and preparedness program to support communities that might be affected by the terrorist attack.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, Typically, the U. Moreover, the United States has implemented various military exercises for…… [Read More]. Infrastructure and Disasters the Twenty-First. As images of looting and stranded citizens filled the airways, taken from news helicopters, the city's police force had virtually abandoned their posts, and some were accused of participating in the looting that followed the disaster there was something noticeably missing in the images; there were no police rescues, no Red Cross, no fire department rescue teams and no National Guard.
Journalist John McQuaid described it this way: But Katrina was much more than a natural event; human hands played a role in the damage and in the storm's equally disastrous aftermath. Katrina exposed deep institutional flaws in the nation's emergency response, supposedly upgraded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, It easily overwhelmed the federal levee system, built by the U.
Hurricane Katrina View Full Essay. Works Cited "Hurricane Katrina. September 12, Karl, Terry Lynn. August 09, September 11, Klein, Joe. Newsweek: Print Edition, September 12, References: 1 Domhoff, G.
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Disaster Management: the Case of Hurricane Katrina Research Paper
And Squires, G. Palgrave Macmillan. Bibliography Herman, Charles. August Labonte, Mac. Silverman, Fran. Bibliography Dao, J. Louisiana sees faded urgency in relief effort. Retrieved March 24, , from U. A month after Katrina: lessons from leadership failures. Administrative breakdowns in the governmental response to Hurricane Katrina. The process concerned exposing on TV a supernumerary, computer- produced version of reality. The media had a sense of temporarily succeeding to sell to the world the terrible stories behind the 19 young terrorists who hijacked the plane.
On September 11, , did a good job in getting tens of millions of Americans clustered around various television sets, observing the sad terrorist assaults on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. In the anxious weeks and months that shadowed, the media was shrewd in making sure that the audiences and person who read remembered the attacks and their aftershock again and again on TV and in newsprints and magazines.
Throughout hurricane Katrina, numerous agents of the news media reporting on the outcome of Hurricane Katrina turn out to be directly implicated in the developing events, as an option of simply reporting. Due to the conquest of most ways of contact, such as regular and cell phone systems, field reporters in so many different cases became channels for items between sufferers and specialists.
On the other hand, numerous journalists also contributed to the level of false rumors of confusion among the victims, which may have been understood as an sample of yellow journalism. In actual fact, children may be at predominantly high risk for emerging PTSD signs after a disturbing event, since they may not have formed adequate managing abilities.
Children may be largely susceptible to suffer posttraumatic stress succeeding admission to a natural disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina. They discovered that many children had skilled a countless deal of stress as an outcome of the hurricane. Most had been exiled by the hurricane, had seen their area demolished or impaired, and had lost certain possessions.
stylansipunru.tk Given the constraint that these children were displayed to, it makes perfect sense that several of them experienced severe indications of depression and posttraumatic stress. In truth, one particular study found that more than half of the children went through high levels of depression and posttraumatic stress signs. Partially is used because many believe the economic damage would have been far less had some of the earlier dikes and engineering plans been better constructed. In addition, many believe adequate measures were not taken to minimize the after effects of this tragedy.
See: "Katrina Response a 'Systemic Failure'. CRS Report for Congress. Du Bois Review, , pp. Katrina's growing economic impact. Congressional report condemns government response to Hurricane Katrina. World Socialist Web Site. Works Cited Andrew, Edward. Marx's theory of Classes: Science and Ideology. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 8 3 , Cullen, Kevin. Rumors, Race ad Class Collide. Nieman Reports. Winter Flaherty, Jordan. New Orleans' Culture of Resistance. Social Policy. Retrieved 30 Dec. Niman, Michael I. Katrina's America: Failure, Racism, and Profiteering.
Rebuilding New Orleans is Slow Going. Retrieved Nov. Facts About Katrina. Knowledge Wharton. Works Cited Cooper, Helene. New York Times. April 30, On Risk and Disaster: Lessons from Katrina. University of Pennsylvania. Works Cited Dyson, E. Come Hell or High Water. Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. Mills, M. American Journal of Public Health Vol 97 1. Bibliography Hurricane Katrina. Washington D. Government Printing Office. Brinkley, D. The Great Deluge. Griffin, R.
Hurricane Devastation Of Hurricane Katrina
Fundamentals of Management. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Johnson, The Four Pillars of High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bibliography CNN. Updated October 7, Retrieved October 7, Updated September 30, Macintyre, Alasdair. London: Routledge, Walters, James W. What Is a Person? An Ethical Exploration. References Editors. References Author not Available. Though the immediate responses to the emergency created by Hurricane Katrina compelled Americans to reconsider their previously held conceptions of race and class in America, the slow reconstruction of New Orleans is also evidence of deeply entrenched race and class distinctions.
Though the hurricane made landfall in New Orleans in , as of this writing , New Orleans has yet to be fully restored, particularly in those areas which were once inhabited by those initially left behind in the initial evacuation. Although the French Quarter was relatively unscathed, and quickly restored with an influx of money, not all areas had the same fortune, primarily because they were first unlucky, and second, because they are not income generating districts. There are still parts of the city that seem like ghost towns. Houses are boarded up, lots sit vacant and overgrown, and the population is significantly reduced.
Many wonder if the people once left behind will ever be able to return. Unfortunately, racism and class distinctions do not only exist in New Orleans.
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They also exist in the cities to which these poor African-Americans fled. Finding themselves in the same position, no or low paying jobs, many find it impossible to save enough money to return to the place they once called home. Home may have been a small apartment or wood frame house, but it was where they knew their neighbors, had family, and felt a part of the community.
As in other times, these basic comforts are denied them because they cannot afford to return and rebuild. With the election of President Obama in , many New Orleans natives had a renewed hope of returning to a rebuilt city and a new day in America where it concerned racism and class exclusion.
That was four years ago and as stated above, many are still waiting. When Obama visited New Orleans on the 5th anniversary of Katrina, he gave an address where he stated that he 'would stand by you until it is done', referring to the rebuilding of New Orleans. However, there have still been no great strides in restoring the low income, predominantly African-American neighborhoods that were basically ignored prior to, during, and now after Hurricane Katrina tore apart New Orleans and forced Americans to admit that there are still significant issues in this country regarding race and class distinctions.
These distinctions are the result of long standing, systemic racism which has permeated this country from its beginning and continues to do so today. Absolutely anyone who tuned their television to the news coverage during and after Katrina had to be stunned by the images which made these issues irrefutable. Unfortunately, it took a hurricane to reveal to many that the Old South is still the Old South. References [House Report, ] U. A Failure of Initiative. C: Government Printing Office.
Litman, T. Journal of Transport Engineering, , Moynihan, D. The Response to Hurricane Katrina. Geneva: International Risk Governance Council. Accessed October 15, References Amanda Ripley Time Magazine. Bibliography Behar, M. Popular Science: Timed Media Company.
New Orleans: Nature's Revenge? Louisiana's Wetlands. National Geographic Magazine Bunch, W. Why the Levee Broke. Philadelphia Daily News. References Resnick, B. Why some people never evacuate during a hurricane, according to a Psychologist. Bibliography David J. Macguire, Michael Batty, and Michael F.
Department of Defense. Washington, D. Field Manual Mission Command. March 20, Works Cited Fischetti, Michael. Protecting New Orleans. The city that was worst affected by this disaster was New Orleans and the government implemented responses to deal with the situation. This paper will set out to review the level of preparedness, response, and recovery efforts undertaken by authorities following Hurricane Katrina in order to highlight shortcomings. Recommendations for improvements will be offered to help increase the probability of better reaction in the event of future disasters.
The level of preparedness for natural disasters in was very low for a number of reasons. To begin with, the government had dedicated most of its resources to fighting terrorism and the war in Iraq. The local authorities did not engage in sufficient preparation for a hurricane disaster in spite of the fact that New Orleans is prone to hurricanes. Before hurricane Katrina hit, a number of studies had highlighted the risk faced by the City.
Levee fortification in the area had therefore been proposed, but the construction work did not begin since the city had budget restrictions. The federal, state and local authorities failed to provide enough emergency supplies in anticipation of the disaster. The US has a sophisticated weather warning system and scientists were able to warn that Katrina was developing into a major hurricane that would have devastating effects. Looking for research paper on history?
Let's see if we can help you! The National Hurricane Center Director was able to issue warning of an impending large-scale catastrophe after the first landfall on August 25 Chua et al. In response to these warnings, the federal government directed FEMA to engage in preparations for the disaster.
However, the supplies procured in readiness for the disaster were not sufficient since the agency did not anticipate a major disaster Nunenmacher 8. A significant criticism leveled against local and state authorities concerns the speed of rescue operations during the disaster. The early reactions to Hurricane Katrina in the US were slow with initial rescue efforts being sluggish.
Chua et al. During this time, people were left to spend nights in the cold and without food or water Nunenmacher The capability and capacity of the first response teams in the devastated regions were greatly inhibited. The first responders are the most important personnel in a disaster. These are the first people at the site of a disaster and they attempt to mitigate the impacts of the disaster and save lives.
The first response team during hurricane Katrina was made up of the National Guard, local law enforcement officers, firefighters, and medical personnel. There was a catastrophic collapse of these first responders since the hurricane destroyed the National Guard headquarters and some of the vehicles that could have been used by responders were lost to floods. In addition to this, the severe storms that characterized Katrina made it impossible for the police and firefighters to move as the roads were flooded.
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