Please be specific in your identification of the types of technology as well as the aforementioned possibilities. The role of technology is in the forefront of contemporary terrorism.
This notion is ostensible due to multifarious technological advances and innovations. Possibilities for widespread destruction and continuous propaganda open up to terrorists who choose to avail themselves of such technology. One of such technological advances is the Internet. The Internet is widely used to spread propaganda and even garner new recruits for terrorist organizations through web sites and blogs. Another good reason to use cyber terrorism techniques is to obtain the necessary funding to support terrorist campaigns.
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This can be done by hacking, scamming, phishing and other methods which will successfully penetrate its intended target i. This would not be easily achieved fifteen or twenty years ago, but now it is, and it poses a definite threat. Another technological disadvantage to the humanity was the introduction of the weapons of mass destruction in the mid twentieth century. This innovation creates a high level threat to the world due to the inclination to cause massive destruction and life loss White, An illustration, like this one, is not far-fetched and is easily achievable for the right price.
Further developments in technology have allowed for a torrent of communication. Cell phones, email, satellite com links, television, Internet, and other channels of communication have allowed for terrorist organizations to plan and execute in a much more organized and rapid manner. The use of cellular and satellite communications plays a vital role in the everyday life of a terrorist organization. Suspicious meetings are arranged on Intranets with superb security features that can block even the most avid hackers.
Terrorists train in how to use technology, and use it in order to stay ahead of the agents who try to eliminate them.
Hence, terrorism may thrive within the present world and its technological marvels. Massive effort needs to be initiated to counter this force as the propensity for a future attack is high as the technology behind them will get better and more ground-breaking with time. Many groups such as Anonymous , use tools such as denial-of-service attack to attack and censor groups who oppose them, creating many concerns for freedom and respect for differences of thought.
Many believe that cyberterrorism is an extreme threat to countries' economies, and fear an attack could potentially lead to another Great Depression. Several leaders agree that cyberterrorism has the highest percentage of threat over other possible attacks on U. Although natural disasters are considered a top threat and have proven to be devastating to people and land, there is ultimately little that can be done to prevent such events from happening. Thus, the expectation is to focus more on preventative measures that will make Internet attacks impossible for execution.
As the Internet continues to expand, and computer systems continue to be assigned increased responsibility while becoming more complex and interdependent, sabotage or terrorism via the Internet may become a more serious threat and is possibly one of the top 10 events to "end the human race.
Dependence on the internet is rapidly increasing on a worldwide scale, creating a platform for international cyber terror plots to be formulated and executed as a direct threat to national security. They can be conducted remotely, anonymously, and relatively cheaply, and they do not require significant investment in weapons, explosive and personnel. The effects can be widespread and profound.
Incidents of cyberterrorism are likely to increase. They will be conducted through denial of service attacks, malware, and other methods that are difficult to envision today. In an article about cyber attacks by Iran and North Korea, The New York Times observes, "The appeal of digital weapons is similar to that of nuclear capability: it is a way for an outgunned, outfinanced nation to even the playing field.
Lewis, a computer security expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. Public interest in cyberterrorism began in the late s, when the term was coined by Barry C. Although the millennium bug was by no means a terrorist attack or plot against the world or the United States, it did act as a catalyst in sparking the fears of a possibly large-scale devastating cyber-attack.
Commentators noted that many of the facts of such incidents seemed to change, often with exaggerated media reports.
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The high-profile terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, and the ensuing War on Terror by the US led to further media coverage of the potential threats of cyberterrorism in the years following. Mainstream media coverage often discusses the possibility of a large attack making use of computer networks to sabotage critical infrastructures with the aim of putting human lives in jeopardy or causing disruption on a national scale either directly or by disruption of the national economy. Authors such as Winn Schwartau and John Arquilla are reported to have had considerable financial success selling books which described what were purported to be plausible scenarios of mayhem caused by cyberterrorism.
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Many critics claim that these books were unrealistic in their assessments of whether the attacks described such as nuclear meltdowns and chemical plant explosions were possible. A common thread throughout what critics perceive as cyberterror-hype is that of non- falsifiability ; that is, when the predicted disasters fail to occur, it only goes to show how lucky we've been so far, rather than impugning the theory. In , for the first time ever, the Department of Justice charged Ardit Ferizi with cyberterrorism. He is accused of allegedly hacking into a military website and stealing the names, addresses, and other personal information of government and military personnel and selling it to ISIS .
On the other hand, it is also argued that, despite substantial studies on cyberterrorism, the body of literature is still unable to present a realistic estimate of the actual threat. As of there have been seventeen conventions and major legal instruments that specifically deal with terrorist activities and can also be applied to cyber terrorism.
There are many different motives for cyberattacks, with the majority being for financial reasons. However, there is increasing evidence that hackers are becoming more politically motivated. Cyberterrorists are aware that governments are reliant on the internet and have exploited this as a result.
This is done by integrating GNO capabilities into the operations of all DoD computers, networks, and systems used by DoD combatant commands, services and agencies. The plan was however replaced by the creation of Twenty-Fourth Air Force which became active in August and would be a component of the planned United States Cyber Command. S Government, military and intelligence efforts to repel hackers.
He left the position in May, More recently, Obama signed an executive order to enable the US to impose sanctions on either individuals or entities that are suspected to be participating in cyber related acts. These acts were assessed to be possible threats to US national security, financial issues or foreign policy issues. The Baltic state of Estonia was the target of a massive denial-of-service attack that ultimately rendered the country offline and shut out from services dependent on Internet connectivity in April The infrastructure of Estonia including everything from online banking and mobile phone networks to government services and access to health care information was disabled for a time.source
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The tech-dependent state experienced severe turmoil and there was a great deal of concern over the nature and intent of the attack. The cyber attack was a result of an Estonian-Russian dispute over the removal of a bronze statue depicting a World War II-era Soviet soldier from the center of the capital, Tallinn. In both of these cases, circumstantial evidence point to coordinated Russian attacks, but attribution of the attacks is difficult; though both the countries blame Moscow for contributing to the cyber attacks, proof establishing legal culpability is lacking.
In , directly as a result of the attacks, NATO opened a new center of excellence on cyberdefense to conduct research and training on cyber warfare in Tallinn. The chaos resulting from the attacks in Estonia illustrated to the world the dependence countries had on information technology. This dependence then makes countries vulnerable to future cyber attacks and terrorism. Considering South Korea's high speed internet and cutting edge technology, its cyber security infrastructure is relatively weak.
In , a ransomware attack harassed private companies and users, who experienced personal information leakage. Additionally, there were North Korea's cyber attacks which risked national security of South Korea. In response to this, South Korean government's countermeasure is to protect the information security centres the National Intelligence Agency. Currently, 'cyber security' is one of the major goals of NIS Korea.
Meanwhile, scholars emphasise on improving the national consciousness towards cyber attacks as South Korea had already entered the so-called 'hyper connected society'. The Chinese Defense Ministry confirmed the existence of an online defense unit in May Composed of about thirty elite internet specialists, the so-called "Cyber Blue Team", or "Blue Army", is officially claimed to be engaged in cyber-defense operations, though there are fears the unit has been used to penetrate secure online systems of foreign governments.
Pakistani Government has also taken steps to curb the menace of cyberterrorism and extremist propaganda. National Counter Terrorism Authority Nacta is working on joint programs with different NGOs and other cyber security organizations in Pakistan to combat this problem.
Surf Safe Pakistan is one such example. Now people in Pakistan can report extremist and terrorist related content online on Surf Safe Pakistan portal. In March an al Qaeda forum posted a training website with six training modules to learn cyberterrorism techniques. A series of powerful cyber attacks began 27 June that swamped websites of Ukrainian organizations, including banks, ministries, newspapers and electricity firms.
An operation can be done by anyone anywhere in the world, for it can be performed thousands of miles away from a target. An attack can cause serious damage to a critical infrastructure which may result in casualties. Some attacks are conducted in furtherance of political and social objectives, as the following examples illustrate:.
Non-political acts of sabotage have caused financial and other damage. In , disgruntled employee Vitek Boden caused the release of , litres of untreated sewage into waterways in Maroochy Shire , Australia. More recently, in May Estonia was subjected to a mass cyber-attack in the wake of the removal of a Russian World War II war memorial from downtown Tallinn. The attack was a distributed denial-of-service attack in which selected sites were bombarded with traffic to force them offline; nearly all Estonian government ministry networks as well as two major Estonian bank networks were knocked offline; in addition, the political party website of Estonia's Prime Minister Andrus Ansip featured a counterfeit letter of apology from Ansip for removing the memorial statue.
Despite speculation that the attack had been coordinated by the Russian government, Estonia's defense minister admitted he had no conclusive evidence linking cyber attacks to Russian authorities. Russia called accusations of its involvement "unfounded", and neither NATO nor European Commission experts were able to find any conclusive proof of official Russian government participation. The OSinform website at osinform. Alania TV, a Georgian government-supported television station aimed at audiences in South Ossetia, denied any involvement in the hacking of the websites.
Dmitry Medoyev , at the time the South Ossetian envoy to Moscow , claimed that Georgia was attempting to cover up information on events which occurred in the lead-up to the war. Az news agency. In June , Russia has conceded that it is "possible" its electrical grid is under cyber-attack by the United States.
Even more recently, in October , the website of Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko was attacked by hackers. A radical Russian nationalist youth group, the Eurasian Youth Movement , claimed responsibility. In hackers attacked NATO computers. The computers flooded them with email and hit them with a denial-of-service attack. Businesses, public organizations and academic institutions were bombarded with highly politicized emails containing viruses from other European countries. A bug was detected in November that could have revealed the country code of users' phone numbers. Twitter said the bug could have had ties to "state-sponsored actors".
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Essays in the Category “Terrorism”
Terrorism Definitions History Incidents. By ideology. Violent extremism Ethnic violence Militia movement Resistance movement. Methods Tactics. Terrorist groups. Designated terrorist groups Charities accused of ties to terrorism.
Response to terrorism. Counter-terrorism International conventions Anti-terrorism legislation Terrorism insurance. Main article: Definitions of terrorism. Main article: cyberattacks on Estonia. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Cyberterrorism 1st ed.
Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood. Facts on File. Indian Council of World Affairs. New York Times Book Review : Retrieved 5 December Responses to Cyber Terrorism. Amterdam: IOS Press. The Internet Encyclopedia, Vol.
Terrorism and Technology :: September 11 Essays 9/11
Even experts can't agree". Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved Harvard Law Record. Victoria Baranetsky. November 5, Retrieved 5 November McGraw Hill. Retrieved 13 August The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. National Institutes of Health. National Crime Agency. New York Law Journal. The Prague Post. Computer and internet technology in legal definitions of terrorism".
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